/ News


Magnesium-based orthopedic implant that safely biodegrades and promotes bone growth

Researchers from South Korea have shown, in preliminary clinical trials of 53 patients, that after a year their magnesium-calcium-zinc orthopedic implant spurns new bone growth by mimicking the body's calcification matrix while the implant safely degrades. Their work appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Orthopedic implants in the form of screws, rods, or metal plates are used to hold fractured bones in place so that they heal properly. Oftentimes this involves an initial surgery to insert the device followed by a second surgery to remove it. An alternative to this would be a biodegradable implant. Researchers have explored this idea using magnesium-based implants since magnesium is known to degrade within the body. However, there has been limited success in this area.

Lee, et al. sought to understanding how magnesium-alloy implants interact with the surrounding bone on the molecular level in an effort to produce alloys that biodegrade and spurn new bone growth. Prior work by them had shown that Mg-5wt%Ca-1wt%Zn can serve as a strong implant that will degrade over time. Additionally, the calcium and zinc components are sufficient to promote bone formation and remodeling, respectively. In this paper they report the results of a long-term clinical study in which 53 patients with a fraction in their hand were given a Mg-5wt%Ca-1wt%Zn bone implant, and the surrounding bone was studied at the macro-, micro-, and nano-levels to determine what is happening in the bone at these levels.

Using histological staining techniques, they were able to distinguish between new and old bone at the site of the implant. They investigated new bone sites using SEM and TEM and found that the new bone formation sites seem to be a result of the implant's degradation products, which induced the body's natural bone forming system.

The area of study was further investigated by dividing the bone into several regions radiating from the magnesium alloy implant and fracture interface. Region I is located at the interface with subsequent regions (i.e., Regions II, III, IV, etc.) extending outward away from the interface. The different regions were determined based on fluorescence and SEM studies indicating varying chemical composition.

They found that Region I had high magnesium and oxygen content, Region II had high calcium and phosphorous content, and Region III displayed a typical bone-like microstructure. Within Region II, there were two types of morphologies, an amorphous ring pattern and crystalline structures. The authors believe that Region I is predominantly Mg(OH)2 while Region II has both calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH).

Magnesium hydroxide is a corrosion product, and indeed, studies showed that the magnesium alloy implant progressively degraded throughout the clinical trial up to a year out when the implant was barely distinguishable. As degradation occurred, new bone grew in its place. The chemical composition closest to the implant-bone interface showed Mg(OH)2, which set off other reactions due to changes in pH levels. These changes lead to the formation of calcium phosphate compounds with the part of Region II closest to Region I displaying amorphous calcium compounds, and the part of Region II farther way displaying crystalline hydroxyapatite.

This crystalline product mimics the body's natural calcification matrix causing it to get resorbed by the osteoclasts and induce bone formation by the osteoblasts. This continuous process of magnesium alloy degradation and bone formation allows the implant to eventually disappear and new bone to appear.

Notably, after the one-year follow up with the 53 patients, all of them healed within the expected timeframe and none of them experienced pain from implant degradation. Further studies to determine degradation rate are needed to further predict how the Mg-Ca-Zn alloy will work in the body, as well as additional studies at other bone fracture sites. This research provides a promising new avenue for orthopedic implant design that not only seems to safely biodegrade but also promotes new bone growth in the process.

 Explore further: Researchers coat spinal polymer implants with bioactive film to improve bonding with bone

More information: Jee-Wook Lee et al. Long-term clinical study and multiscale analysis of in vivo biodegradation mechanism of Mg alloy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1518238113

There has been a tremendous amount of research in the past decade to optimize the mechanical properties and degradation behavior of the biodegradable Mg alloy for orthopedic implant. Despite the feasibility of degrading implant, the lack of fundamental understanding about biocompatibility and underlying bone formation mechanism is currently limiting the use in clinical applications. Herein, we report the result of long-term clinical study and systematic investigation of bone formation mechanism of the biodegradable Mg-5wt%Ca-1wt%Zn alloy implant through simultaneous observation of changes in element composition and crystallinity within degrading interface at hierarchical levels. Controlled degradation of Mg-5wt%Ca-1wt%Zn alloy results in the formation of biomimicking calcification matrix at the degrading interface to initiate the bone formation process. This process facilitates early bone healing and allows the complete replacement of biodegradable Mg implant by the new bone within 1 y of implantation, as demonstrated in 53 cases of successful long-term clinical study. 

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  

Source: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-01-magnesium-based-orthopedic-implant-safely-biodegrades.html

/ About us

Founded by Russian entrepreneur Dmitry Itskov in February 2011 with the participation of leading Russian specialists in the field of neural interfaces, robotics, artificial organs and systems.

The main goals of the 2045 Initiative: the creation and realization of a new strategy for the development of humanity which meets global civilization challenges; the creation of optimale conditions promoting the spiritual enlightenment of humanity; and the realization of a new futuristic reality based on 5 principles: high spirituality, high culture, high ethics, high science and high technologies. 

The main science mega-project of the 2045 Initiative aims to create technologies enabling the transfer of a individual’s personality to a more advanced non-biological carrier, and extending life, including to the point of immortality. We devote particular attention to enabling the fullest possible dialogue between the world’s major spiritual traditions, science and society.

A large-scale transformation of humanity, comparable to some of the major spiritual and sci-tech revolutions in history, will require a new strategy. We believe this to be necessary to overcome existing crises, which threaten our planetary habitat and the continued existence of humanity as a species. With the 2045 Initiative, we hope to realize a new strategy for humanity's development, and in so doing, create a more productive, fulfilling, and satisfying future.

The "2045" team is working towards creating an international research center where leading scientists will be engaged in research and development in the fields of anthropomorphic robotics, living systems modeling and brain and consciousness modeling with the goal of transferring one’s individual consciousness to an artificial carrier and achieving cybernetic immortality.

An annual congress "The Global Future 2045" is organized by the Initiative to give platform for discussing mankind's evolutionary strategy based on technologies of cybernetic immortality as well as the possible impact of such technologies on global society, politics and economies of the future.


Future prospects of "2045" Initiative for society


The emergence and widespread use of affordable android "avatars" controlled by a "brain-computer" interface. Coupled with related technologies “avatars’ will give people a number of new features: ability to work in dangerous environments, perform rescue operations, travel in extreme situations etc.
Avatar components will be used in medicine for the rehabilitation of fully or partially disabled patients giving them prosthetic limbs or recover lost senses.


Creation of an autonomous life-support system for the human brain linked to a robot, ‘avatar’, will save people whose body is completely worn out or irreversibly damaged. Any patient with an intact brain will be able to return to a fully functioning  bodily life. Such technologies will  greatly enlarge  the possibility of hybrid bio-electronic devices, thus creating a new IT revolution and will make  all  kinds of superimpositions of electronic and biological systems possible.


Creation of a computer model of the brain and human consciousness  with the subsequent development of means to transfer individual consciousness  onto an artificial carrier. This development will profoundly change the world, it will not only give everyone the possibility of  cybernetic immortality but will also create a friendly artificial intelligence,  expand human capabilities  and provide opportunities for ordinary people to restore or modify their own brain multiple times.  The final result  at this stage can be a real revolution in the understanding of human nature that will completely change the human and technical prospects for humanity.


This is the time when substance-independent minds will receive new bodies with capacities far exceeding those of ordinary humans. A new era for humanity will arrive!  Changes will occur in all spheres of human activity – energy generation, transportation, politics, medicine, psychology, sciences, and so on.

Today it is hard to imagine a future when bodies consisting of nanorobots  will become affordable  and capable of taking any form. It is also hard to imagine body holograms featuring controlled matter. One thing is clear however:  humanity, for the first time in its history, will make a fully managed evolutionary transition and eventually become a new species. Moreover,  prerequisites for a large-scale  expansion into outer space will be created as well.


Key elements of the project in the future

• International social movement
• social network immortal.me
• charitable foundation "Global Future 2045" (Foundation 2045)
• scientific research centre "Immortality"
• business incubator
• University of "Immortality"
• annual award for contribution to the realization of  the project of "Immortality”.

Login as user:

If you are registered on one of these websites, you can get a quick registration. To do this, please select the wesite and follow the instructions.

Login to 2045.com

You do not have login to 2045.com? Register!
Dear colleagues, partners, friends! If you support ​the 2045 strategic social initiative goals and values, please register on our website.

Quick registration:

If you are registered on one of these websites, you can get a quick registration. To do this, please select the wesite and follow the instructions.


Field of activity:
Enter the code shown:

Show another picture

Восстановить пароль


Contact Email:
Attachment ( not greater than 5 Mb. ):
avatar project milestones